WelcomeComputer Tips    


REFRESHING-RELOADING your browser ensures that old data, graphics, prices, etc., are removed, and only the current data are downloaded.

Here's how you do it.

  Windows Users: Right-click your mouse, then make the 'Refresh' or 'Reload' selection with your cursor.

 Mac Users: Right-click your mouse, then make the 'Refresh' or 'Reload' selection with your cursor. Or press Command key (the Apple image key) and the 'R' key. Or, on older Mac models, click and hold your mouse, then make the 'Refresh' or 'Reload' selection with your cursor.

NOTE: Some older browser versions may require manual refreshing of their memory, i.e., cache. The 'Refresh-Reload' function may be manually set as a default function thereby avoiding the necessity for the above procedure. Check out the Browser Preferences for this option.


If persistent issues develop, Reboot-Restart your computer as a last resort. Many Web browsers automatically reload the browser cache-memory at Restart. Most often, a simple Reboot of your computer can resolve a balky browser, aggravating glitches, and stubborn software conflicts, saving you a lot of time and frustration. However, sometimes it's just a host server that goes down, which requires several minutes of everybody's patience for its return to service. And don't forget to 'defrag' your PC monthly. SEE NOTES.*

CUT   Welcome COPY

Typing a Web address to your browser or search engine
one digit at a time is unnecessary and a big waste of time.
Here's an easy way to save yourself a lot of time and effort.


Welcome 'Highlight' the Web address, or any words you want to cut-copy with your cursor, i.e., select the text to be copied by moving your cursor over the characters while pressing your mouse-cursor (left) button.

Welcome Press Control and C ('C' stands for Cut-Copy). Note: Mac, press Command (the Apple image key) and C.

Welcome Go to your browser window and highlight the existing data with your cursor.

Welcome Press Control and V ('V' stands for View-Paste). Note: Mac, press Command and V. The new copy will be pasted in your browser replacing the previous data.

Welcome Click Enter. The new Web page will now appear. NOTE: If you want to make sure that you have downloaded the very latest data. SEE REFRESHING.

NOTE: When copying Web addresses especially make sure you don't include any extra spacing or characters as this will result in an "Unable to find Web address" or similar error message.


  Windows Users: To magnify text, simultaneously press Control and + keys. To minify text, press Control and minus keys, i.e., the Control and hyphen (-) keys.

 Mac Users: To magnify text, simultaneously press Command (Apple image key) and + keys. To minify text, press Command and minus keys, i.e., the Command and hyphen (-) keys.



What is file fragmentation? For your computer to work at peak performance, files on the hard drive should be lined up neatly -- one after the other, end-to-end, without gaping spaces between them. But as you use your computer, the files get fragmented. How?

When you create a new file, it can be split up into blocks and stored in multiple locations. Deleting documents or programs leaves empty spaces. And it only gets worse over time.

So when you want to use one of those fragmented files, your hard drive has to work extra hard to read and write -- zipping across the drive platter to find all the pieces and parts. If a file is written in several parts across the hard drive, it takes longer to open. Defragmenting or "defragging" the hard drive is like running a virtual broom over it, sweeping the files together again.

If you use Vista or Windows 7 as your operating system,
you can stop reading now. Both of these newer versions of Windows automatically defragment the disk in the background when the computer is idle. Problem solved.

But if you use Windows XP, you need to regularly do a little hard drive house-cleaning to keep your PC in top working order. This is an easy task using the Disk Defragmenter tool that comes with Windows XP.


To find Disk Defragmenter, do this:
1. Click Start, and then click All Programs.
2. Click Accessories, and then click System Tools.
3. Choose Disk Defragmenter.
4. Select the drive you want to defrag if more than one disk drive is indicated.


Click the "Analyze" button to find out the estimated disk usage before defragmentation.

When the analysis is complete, you can choose to view the report.

Click the "Defragment" button to begin the defrag process. This utility will collect the scattered file fragments and write them to adjacent clusters so each file occupies an unbroken section of the hard drive. In addition, it shows you a colorful visual display of the process.

IMPORTANT: Do not use your computer while the defrag utility is working because each time you write to disk, the defrag procedure will begin anew. --

Computer terms you should know.

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